What is the function of fungi in crops?
The fungi reproduces in short, medium and long periods of time, perpetuating across time and becoming a secret and accurate enemy of plagues and diseases.
What types of insects does fungi control?
Fungi controls whitefly, fruitfly, aphids, coffee berry borers, nematodes, pearl of the land, scales, bedbugs, chizas or mojojoy, trips, worms, crickets, beetles, mites, picudos (black, striped and yellow), plant louses, ants, etc.
Fungi also controls tick, mión and pasture bedbugs, stables fly, cattle fly, green parrot, among others.
How does fungi attack insects?
Fungi’s spore adheres to the insect’s cuticle structures. This allows fungi to penetrate the insect and to produce enzymes that digest the external cuticle; once inside, fungi liberates toxins and colonizes all the organs of the inn-keeper. Finally, fungi covers the external parts of the dead insect and continues its reproduction process. Fungi’s spores spread with the wind, rain or other healthy insects.
What are the symptoms of an insect attacked…
Infected insects stop feeding themselves and begin a process of lethargy by which their movements become slow, they lose locomotive action, and relocate to high altitudes or lay at the back of leaves.
How long does it take fungi to act on an insect?
After infected, the insect will die after 4 to 7 days, depending on the insect and on the environmental conditions.
Which type of diseases does fungi…
Rhizoctonia solanii (stem rotting, pod mildew), Fusarium, Alternaria, Phytophthora, Sclerotium, Pythium, Ceratocystes fimbriata (macana sore), Rosellinia bunodes, Rosellinia pepo (radical sores), Cercóspora stain, black stain or Antracnosis, scab, etc. Also, diseases caused by bacteria like Pseudonomas and Erwinia, among others.
How does the trichoderma fungi operates on the pathogenic fungi?
The enzymatical mechanism of fungi’s spores allows it to drill, penetrate and wrap the wall of the cells of the pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes that cause disease in plants. Trichoderma antagonizes the action of pathogenic by space competition. as a decomposer of organic matter, and delivering it in to the plant, promoting its growth and development.
Is fungi affected by solar radiation?
Yes, especially by the ultraviolet radiation. This is why the fungi formulations must contain oils and blockaders that diminish the effects of solar radiation; nevertheless, most crops provide protection areas against this effect (tree’s plate and lower branches of plants)
Are there any recommendations regarding transportation of biocontrollers?
The product can be transported in sealed carton boxes. Packing must not be subject to impacts that may cause bags to break and spill the product.
• Efectos para la salud: El producto no ofrece riesgos para la salud humana y animal (vertebrados).
• Protección personal: Para su manipulación utilice equipo de protección como careta, respirador, guantes y botas de caucho, etc., y observar las normas de protección establecidas, sobre el uso y manejo seguro de insecticidas y fungicidas. No coma, beba o fume mientras manipule el producto. Evite la respiración prolongada de la neblina de aspersión, el contacto con la piel y los ojos. Después de aplicar el producto cámbiese de ropa y báñese con abundante agua y jabón antes de ingerir alimentos o fumar.
• Lavar los equipos de aspersión con agua y detergente. No contamine fuentes de agua como ríos y acequias.
What care must be take when using biocontrollers?
Personal Protection: To manipulate, use a mask, respirator, gloves and rubber boots. (Observe the protection procedure donde se observa?, on the use and safe manipulation of insecticides and fungicides. Do not eat, drink or smoke while manipulating the product. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. After applying the product change clothing and bath with abundant water and soap before consuming food or smoking.
- In case of Ingestion: Drink water or milk before inducing vomit. Take the person immediately to the hospital and carry product’s label with you.
•In case of Inhalation: Place the patient in a fresh and drafty place. If he/she is not breathing, start mouth-to-mouth breathing. If the person is breathing with difficulty, give supply him/her with oxygen.
• When there is eye contact: Wash eyes immediately with abundant water for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention.
• When there is skin contact: Take the contaminated clothes and wash with abundant water and soap.
What happens when the product is not used entirely?
Once opened, all the content must be used. Otherwise, it must be sealed with tape, refrigerated, and used before 30 days have passed. Once emptied, rinse and shake the bag with clean water three times before destroying it.
What should be consider before applying fungi?
Biological control with fungi seeks to reduce levels of pests and diseases so the population remains regulated; However, before starting the application of biological products, it is recommended to make a diagnosis and management plan for the farm. If the levels of infestation or infection are above average in the economic damage, it is recommended to apply a fungicide or chemical insecticide, in order to decrease the level of the population through a shock effect and after 10 days, once has passed the residual effect, start applications with biological products.
How often should the fungy be apply for health control?
The fungi should be applied three times at intervals of 20-30 days. The first application is suggested as inundative, twice the recommended dose, in order to promote the massive establishment of the fungus spores for effective control of insects and diseases. The following applications can be made focused and not widespread, depending on the technical evaluation criteria.
Routine applications must be maintained in order to achieve the establishment of the microorganisms in the soil and ensure the regulation of insects and crop diseases.
What advantages offers to apply biocontrollers instead of chemical products?
The biocontrol fungi are perpetuated over time, for its continued ability to multiply and spores spreading. This gives them a greater range of action in health regulation, while applying chemicals “in situ” is done and action ends the residual effect disappears with the disadvantage that insects or pathogens that cause disease in crops can develop resistance to these active compounds.
What is the difference between a biological controller and a chemical product?
|BIOLOGICAL CONTROL WITH FUNGI||CHEMICAL CONTROL|
|It is a VACCINE: It is used in the early stages of cultivation: Germination, Seedlings.||It is generally used as curative control in crops.|
|Its control response is slow (action from 4 -7 days).||Its effect is spectacular (immediate action: hours).|
|Regulate insect populations and disease-causing pathogens||It promotes resistance in insects and pathogens.|
|They do not cause damage to the agricultural ecosystem.||Upset the balance in the environment and its surroundings.|
|They are perpetuated over time.
|It applies “in situ” and residual effect disappears shortly.|
|low investment||By frequency of application and resistance problems become high investment|
What are the disadvantages of using a biological controller?
- Environmental: The fungi are sensitive to extreme temperatures, drying and ultraviolet light. This disadvantage can be counteracted with the use of agricultural emulsifiers oils and sunblocks. Soluciones Micorbianas del Trópico Biological products include oil (sunscreen), allowing to stay most of the time exposed on the ground or floor.
- Storage: fungi require storage conditions that allow them to retain their viability and infectivity. Soluciones Microbianas del Trópico guarantees biological stability of biocontrol on its packaging, at room temperature, for a period of 12 months due to its formulation through the process of “vacuum dehydration”, in which enters a period of latency to the time of hydration for the respective spray.
- Time of action: bio-pesticides do not kill instantly. Achieve good levels of control after several applications, depending on the pest and the environment; however, the insect, being parasitized by the fungus, stops feeding and damage to the plant is reduced.
Which ones are the most common biocontrollers to control insect-pests and diseases in crops?
Metatrópico (Metarhizium anisopliae)
Paecilotrópico (Paecilomyces lilacinus)
Bovetrópico (Beauveria bassiana)
Trichotrópico (Trichoderma harzianum+T.koningii)
Tropimezcla (Mezcla microbiana de hongos y levadura)
What are the recomendations for using biocontrollers?
The product contained in the package is a living being and as such, should be pursued in appropriate conditions in the handling process and final application to the field , can be stored at room temperature in a cool place up to 12 months. Keep this product in its original packaging in a cool, ventilated place, away from food, drugs and fodder, out of reach of children and pets and never in the same place where you sleep, eat or prepare food.
- WHY BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS ARE NOT USE FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS PLAGUES AND DISEASES?Because I do not know very well the topic and I´ve been told that they cannot be mixed with chemists and I use lots of chemists, so I would not be doing well the managing. Because I´ve been told that it does not control and I am afraid to lose the crop.SMT’s opinion:it is necessary to know the difference between the action of the biological products and the chemical products, face to the control of insects pests and diseases in crops. The biological products can be mixed with fertilizers, physiological and inducting regulators of resistance.
- WHY BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS ARE NOT USE FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS PLAGUES AND DISEASES?I do not know how to handle it and what if it does not work becuase I do not give them the best managment and I end up causing a harm.SMT’s opinion:There are paradigms, concepts or fixed ideas about the type of control that must be used to regulate insects pests and pathogenic in the cultures. The application of the biological products, is an friendly solution with the environment, an alternative that allows to support the balance in the soil and avoid the resistance of the insects to the chemical products, for the frequency of application and the high toxicity that some of them represent.
- WHY BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS ARE NOT USE FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS PLAGUES AND DISEASES?Because it has to be handle under professional supervisión or someone who knows a lot, and here no one knows and the chemist are well known so it is used a lot.SMT’s opinion:The company realizes the accompaniment to the farmer and to the technician, in order to solve worries on the use and application of biological control agents, inside the concept of integrated managing of plagues and diseases (MIPE).
- WHY BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS ARE NOT USE FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS PLAGUES AND DISEASES?Because these products are not bring here and we have always worked with chemists and they are OK.SMT’s opinion:With more than 15 years on the market, SMT provides the biological inputs to agricultural stores to different cities and municipalities of the country. SMT realizes the sale to unions, associations, technical personnel and farmers.
OPINIONES DE LOS AGRICULTORES:
- ¿Por qué no utiliza usted productos biológicos para el control de insectos plagas y enfermedades?
Me da mucho miedo que no controlen las plagas y las enfermedades, se me caiga el cultivo y pierda mi inversión.